A Snapshot of The Industry

The Stack Overflow Developer Survey is an annual survey conducted by Stack Overflow, a popular online community for programmers. It gathers insights and data about the global developer community and is open to all developers, regardless of their background or expertise. The survey attracts participants from different countries and professional backgrounds, making it a reliable source for understanding developer trends.

After conducting the survey, Stack Overflow analyzes the data and creates a detailed report that presents the findings. This report includes statistical insights, trends, and comparisons with previous years, allowing individuals, organizations, and researchers to better understand the developer ecosystem.

The survey has become highly anticipated in the software development industry, with developers eagerly participating and awaiting the release of the results. The findings are widely discussed, shared, and referenced by professionals, educators, recruiters, and technology enthusiasts. It helps them stay informed about the latest trends and make informed decisions regarding technology adoption, career choices, and industry direction.

Below are just a few highlights from the survey. To see the full survey please consult the references at the bottom of the page.

Popular Programming and Scripting Languages

In 2023, JavaScript maintains its reign as the most frequently utilized programming language for the eleventh consecutive year. Python has surpassed SQL and now holds the position of the third most widely used language. Several technologies have climbed up the rankings this year, including Bash/Shell, C, Ruby, Perl, and Erlang, each advancing by one spot. Additionally, Elixir and Lisp have made significant progress by moving up two spots. The most notable advancement has been made by Lua, an embeddable scripting language, which has soared by an impressive seven spots since 2022.

Number of responses: 2023 (87, 585) ; 2022 (71, 547) ; 2021 (83, 052)


In 2023, PostgreSQL has surpassed MySQL to claim the top position. Among professional developers, PostgreSQL is the preferred choice for 50% of them, whereas MySQL is more commonly used by those who are still in the process of learning to code, with 54% of them opting for it. MongoDB is utilized by a comparable percentage of both professional developers and coding learners. It stands as the second most popular database among those learning to code, ranking right behind MySQL.

Number of responses: 2023 (76, 634) ; 2022 (63, 327) ; 2021 (73, 317)

Cloud Platforms

AWS continues to maintain its dominant position as the most widely utilized cloud platform among all respondents. It effortlessly secures the top spot, significantly surpassing the percentage of the second most utilized platform, Azure. Among individuals learning to code, AWS remains their top choice, with 26% of them opting for it. However, when considering their top three cloud platforms, there is a closer competition. Google Cloud and Firebase both hold a significant share, with 26% and 25% respectively. Interestingly, Heroku, which held the title of the most used cloud platform among coding learners last year, has dropped to the fifth position this year.

Number of responses: 2023 (69, 549) ; 2022 (56, 553) ; 2021 (62, 061)

Web Frameworks and Technologies

The subsequent popular web technologies for all respondents include jQuery and Express. Professional developers exhibit a higher utilization of jQuery compared to those learning to code, with percentages of 24% and 18% respectively. On the other hand, Express sees greater adoption among coding learners, with a usage rate of 25%, surpassing the 20% adoption rate among professionals.

Number of responses: 2023 (71, 802 ) ; 2022 (58, 743 ) ; 2021 (67, 593)

Other Frameworks and Libraries

This year, .NET (5+) secures the top position among other frameworks and libraries. Similar to last year, Python-compatible libraries continue to exhibit higher scores in this category among coding learners. Alongside established favorites and new options, we observe the rise of Opencv and OpenGL, both entering the top 10 list with usage rates of 13% and 11% respectively.

Number of responses: 2023 (52, 046) ; 2022 (54, 414) ; 2021 (59, 921)

Other Tools

In the current year, Docker emerges as the most popular additional tool among survey participants, with 53% utilizing it, surpassing its previous second place ranking.

Number of responses: 2023 (80, 249) ; 2022 (59, 919); 2021 (76, 253)

Integrated Development Environments

Visual Studio Code retains its position as the favored Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

Number of responses: 2023 (66, 469) ; 2022 (71, 010) ; 2021 (82, 277)

Top Programming and Scripting Languages for Professionals and Learners

Professional developers continue to prioritize the same top three technologies as last year: JavaScript, HTML/CSS, and SQL. However, among those learning to code, HTML/CSS and JavaScript are nearly equally popular. Python is more commonly used by student developers (59%) compared to SQL (37%), while professional developers lean towards SQL (52%) over Python (45%). Learners show a higher tendency to report using Java (37% vs. 31%), C++ (32% vs. 20%), and C (32% vs. 17%) in contrast to professional developers.

Number of responses: Professional Developers (67, 503) ; Learners (4, 905)

Most Desired, Admired, and Dreaded Programming and Scripting Languages in 2023

Rust is the most admired language, more than 80% of developers that use it want to use it again next year. Compare this to the least admired language: MATLAB. Less than 20% of developers who used this language want to use it again next year.

Number of responses: 87, 510

Most Desired, Admired, and Dreaded Databases in 2023

Among databases, PostgreSQL, Redis, and Datomic stand out as the most esteemed choices, with Datomic having the fewest user base. Such a noteworthy level of admiration should encourage others to contemplate Datomic as a compelling and viable option.

Number of responses: 75, 996

Most Desired, Admired, and Dreaded Cloud Platforms in 2023

Hetzner and Vercel boast a substantial percentage of users who have both utilized their services and express a desire to continue doing so (69% or more). In comparison, a greater number of developers would opt to collaborate with these two cloud platforms rather than the top three contenders (AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud), based on their previous experience and preferences.

Number of responses: 68,885

Most Desired, Admired, and Dreaded Web Frameworks in 2023

Phoenix emerges as the most revered web framework and technology, with a greater number of developers expressing a preference to continue working with Phoenix compared to the three most prevalent options: React, Node.js, and Next.js.

Number of responses: 70, 637

Most Desired, Admired, and Dreaded Libraries and Other Frameworks in 2023

Tauri, Hugging Face Transformers, and .NET (5+) stand out as the most esteemed frameworks and libraries within their respective category. .NET (5+) has garnered significant popularity this year, securing its position as the most favored choice. On the other hand, Tauri and Hugging Face Transformers, although less recognized, boast a higher level of admiration among their users.

Number of responses: 66, 235

Most Desired, Admired, and Dreaded Tools in 2023

Cargo surpasses the top competitors in terms of the number of respondents who wish to continue using it next year. However, Docker stands out by having nearly double the proportion of respondents who express a desire to utilize it in the upcoming year, compared to all other available options.

Number of responses: 79, 679

Most Desired, Admired, and Dreaded Integrated Development Environments in 2023

Visual Studio Code takes the lead as the favored Integrated Development Environment (IDE) based on user preferences. However, Neovim surpasses it in terms of the proportion of users who express a desire to continue using it next year, with 81% compared to Visual Studio Code's 77%.

Number of responses: 86, 310